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Thursday, 12 December 2019

December 12, 2019

New year eve

New year eve

New year eve


Hi, you found that essayonfest.online blog quick you're the new emperor of Rome so what's the biggest problem you can solve on your first day in the office for Julius Caesar in 45 BC it was to fix the Roman calendar that was the first time in recorded history.


A New Year's Day celebration took place on January 1st January is named for Janus the Roman god of new beginnings Janus was known as a two-faced God with the ability to look backward to the past and forward to the future before the time of Julius Caesar the Romans tried to link their calendar to the cycles of the moon but they quickly ran into trouble 

it was nearly impossible to keep a lunar calendar in the face with the turning of the seasons and public officials exploited the errors by adding these to keep politicians in power and yes to dabble in a little election meddling on the side things became more stable and more manageable by copying the Egyptians and basing the new Roman calendar 


New year eve

on the turning of the solar year the January first reference point eventually carried forward to the Gregorian calendar we use today no one knows for sure how far back New Year celebrations go but it's easy to imagine that the idea is as old as humanity itself the first record we have in history is from the ancient Babylonians 

they put in a huge and complicated religious festival around the vernal equinox which is the day in late March that has equal hours of light and darkness this was the time when they honored deities crowned their rulers and recognized the symbolic start of their new year since then civilizations around the world have chosen some agricultural or astronomical event to mark the symbolic end of one year and the beginning of a new one.



In many countries, the traditional New Year celebration begins on the final evening of December known as New Year's Eve and the party continues well into New Year's Day while the symbols differ from one culture to the next most of them have something to do with new beginnings prosperity and good luck circular pastries like doughnuts and cakes that represent the annual cycle are popular,

In many cultures as are foods that suggest a resemblance to coins like lentils or black-eyed peas getting back to the ancient Babylonians for a moment they often get the credit for our modern practice of making New Year's resolutions they used to make promises to their favorite deities in hopes of gaining favor 


New year eve

In the new year by paying off debts or returning borrowed property there is something deeply human about craving a fresh start and looking ahead to a future filled with the possibility in the United States

 New Year's Eve is often marked with an instrumental or vocal performance of the song auld lang syne which reaches back to an 18th century Robert Burns poem in modern English the title can be roughly translated as for the sake of the old times and it has come to symbolize a sentimental musical goodbye to the old year as we welcome the new one the song became attached to New Year's Eve.

When guy Lombardo's orchestra started playing at @midnight during their holiday radio broadcast from New York City's Rosabelle hotel in the 1920s the traditional kiss at midnight is an ancient good luck ritual when we're at our most vulnerable moment facing an uncertain new year in the darkness of winter.


we want to be close to people who hold good wishes for us and have our best interests at heart sparkling wine has been a part of public occasions for centuries but popping champagne corks and a special magic to New Year's Eve and our desire to start the new year with a little luxury and indulgence fireworks are part of many New Year's celebrations and in many cultures around the world dazzling fires explosions and beating drums 


evolved as a way of frightening away evil spirits and clear the way for good luck when fireworks were banned in New York as a fire hazard in 1907 new york times publisher Aldo fox replaced them with 100 lightbulbs arranged around the wood and iron ball a 12 foot 12,000-pound version of his invention still drops at midnight every year on Times Square viewed by millions as are not to be missed new year's event not to be outdone other regions have developed their own symbolic New Year drops.


That represents their own local identity from peaches in Georgia to spuds in Idaho in the movies New Year's Eve is often portrayed as a very adult expensive black-tie affair but there's no reason why you can't create your own inclusive version for everyone in your family invite children into the celebration with fun crafts or cooking projects that symbolize their goals and dreams,


for the new year create a family dream board of experiences accomplishments or acts of service you'd like to try to see if there is an old promise you can keep or a relationship you can rekindle with a heartfelt wish for good luck and prosperity as the calendar turns from the old year to the new that's the story on the American New Year celebration we're all about joy happiness and holidays to keep up with all the best holiday ideas and fun histories then click the subscribe button. 




New year eve

New year eve 


Tuesday, 3 December 2019

December 03, 2019

Effects of Urbanization on Environment

Effects of Urbanization on Environment



Effects of Urbanization on Environment



the sex of urbanization on the environment is a lesson plan developed by John Bunce and has been modified by Jerry Spencer the content in this blog focuses primarily on the detrimental increase of impervious surfaces on the growing an urban environment this blog was made possible through the NSF-funded photo knowledge and science classroom projects at Ohio University have you ever witnessed a garden move in the middle of a city probably what a building coated in grass or a putting green on top of a building why would we ever plan a garden on the top of a roof what is this madness these token a structures are known as green roofs

they can greatly reduce the impact of human activity on the environment a green roof is essentially a garden planted on the top of a building or urban structure instead of using typical roofing materials green roofs are composed of a series of layers including a vegetation and soil layer instead in synthetic plastic Warren airs underneath the vegetation for drainage filtration and insulation purposes these Roos enhance environmental conditions in urban environments by reducing runoff volumes from rain events helping to filter contaminants in rainwater providing

insulation from noise absorbing excess heat increasing the lifespan of roof structures and being generally pleasant to look at however they are more expensive than traditional roofs as they require additional building materials engineering and maintenance this augmentation of the urban landscape with greenery is a common technique to reduce the effects of urbanization on our environments urbanization relates to the growth and development of cities but why might people be more inclined to move to urban areas in the past and today people flock to cities in hopes of economic opportunity a majority of u.s. population 

now resides in urban environments cities provide a wealth of resources and a sense of opportunity which is lacking in rural areas this growth of urban centers is largely accelerated by gains and transportation planning or personal vehicles and roadways allow for quick movement of people and resources better transportation systems may ultimately lead to 


what is known as urban sprawl people are now able to commute the cities and personal vehicles and they are therefore able to reside outside of urban centers while still reaping the benefits of urbanization urban sprawl can be defined as the growth of low-density developments on the edges of cities and towns these developments include things like suburbs and small towns outside of larger cities urban sprawl may eliminate usable agricultural lands result in increased impervious surfaces worsen traffic congestion increased greenhouse gas emissions increase the number of people

living in suburbs and destroy wildlife habitats a large concern of urban sprawl on the environment deals with the interruption of the local hydrological cycle by impervious surfaces impervious is defined as not allowing entrance or passage something which is impenetrable of the three third surfaces shown which ones are impervious and which ones that are previous how do these surfaces relate to urbanization take a moment to think about these questions and share your thoughts 

with others in your class try to think of other surfaces or core materials which are impervious you may pause the blog here to discuss both these images the pavement and roof shingles would be considered as impervious surfaces and the grass would be considered as a pervious surface if you've ever observed the street during a larger rain event next to the curve you might notice rainwater flowing downhill in a little stream channel in a natural environment with lots of pervious surfaces water is able to penetrate through the ground and collect in aquifers underground we will now conduct a simple lab experiment to study the effects of impervious surfaces on the environment 

you will work in small groups to build a land surface model using a sloped paint tray wire mesh and sponges as shown in the picture on the right then you will test several different materials by simulating a rain event while conducting the experiment try to think about what each material might represent in either in urban or natural environments read 

The Associated handout for more details now you can pause the video here to perform the experiment before moving on with the rest of this blog an increase in the number of impervious surfaces leads to increase the amounts of runoff runoff is water from rain events flowing over the grounds eventually collecting into streams rivers or groundwater surfaces in an urban environment runoff volumes are increased dramatically because water is not as able to be stored underground this leads to an increased risk of flooding in urban environments the local hydrology of an urban environment is effectively driven by runoff whereas 


a natural environment is driven by infiltration of rainwater into the grounds a runoff driven environment is more susceptible to water pollution when water in an urban environment runs over an impervious surfaces it tends to pick up the pollutants which have been deposited by the people living there to some degree gasoline oil lawn fertilizers pesticides and trash all get swept away by runoff and carried to 

the intercepting streams or odd water sources without a sizable amount of land cover for water to penetrate through these pollutants are not able to be effectively removed by natural filtration and thus become concentrated the effects of water pollution may become intensified by air pollution as the two are interrelated to some degree eutrophication is a prime example of the pollution of aquatic ecosystems stemming from urban water runoff eutrophication begins when runoff picks up excess nutrients from the deliberate spring of fertilizers for agriculture or personal lawns and gardens fertilizers are rich in the phosphorus and nitrogen by supplying plants


these nutrients fertilizers allow for rapid plant growth as you may expect these nutrients bolster the growth of algae in the same way nutrient loadings the streams via runoff accelerates the gross growth of algae which can then block sunlight from reaching other aquatic organisms when the algae eventually die and deposit on the bottom of a river or lake bacteria which decompose the dead algae remove oxygen from the water column and effectively kill organisms 

which rely on oxygen to survive this leads to dead zones where aquatic organisms are not as able to thrive in order to mitigate or reduce the negative effects of urban runoff and aquatic ecosystems it is necessary to make a compromise with Mother Nature to do this engineers and construction companies typically implement mitigation features into infrastructure design mitigation efforts may include things like egoism solar or renewable energy resources repurposing municipal wastes incorporating urban gardens or green roofs into new and pre-existing infrastructure using Zoning to protect 


the agricultural landscape from urbanization in allotting tax breaks for implementing environmentally-conscious practices an example of a common mitigation practice that you may be somewhat familiar with is the stormwater detention basin these basins are sometimes they require and for businesses for developers in rural areas stormwater detention basins are tied to the downspouts of a building structure and reduce runoff volumes in a similar manner to green roofs by holding rainwater in a pond like structure you know slowly allowing it to infiltrate into the grounds typically these basins are designed to collect and hold all potential rent rainwater runoff the results from the development of a building site weed for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design 

is a nationally recognized green certification organization under the United States Green Building Council which uses a 110 point scale to determine how green a building it is points are assigned to buildings based on several categories these categories include whether the building uses water efficiently is located at a sustainable site is energy efficient produces few emissions uses environmentally conscious materials or resources in this construction and that's good indoor environmental quality buildings with the highest ratings receive a platinum rating while we design is not enforced at this time 

it is slowly gaining a foothold in the minds of engineers architects and construction companies in the design of buildings and structures a good example of a Platinum rated building is station number 12 in Madison Wisconsin this building utilizes a geothermal system for heating and cooling a green roof solar heating panels for hot water needs xeriscaping that reduces the amount of high maintenance turf and the landscaping in a stormwater collection system for general 

non-potable uses such as for landscape irrigation and flushing toilets to summarize urbanization and urban sprawl negatively impact the environment in a number of different ways because of a large percentage of impervious surface cover in urban environments rainwater runoff volumes 

the streams tend to increase and may lead to dramatic consequences like flooding pollution associated with urban landscapes enters the aquatic environment through runoff into streams lakes and rivers eutrophication is an example of aquatic ecosystem collapse due to runoff of excessive nutrients from fertilizers for I qualms and Gardens we can use green roofs urban gardens improves us dorm water detention structures and environmentally conscious designs like weed buildings to mitigate the impact of urban runoff on our environments.

Sunday, 1 December 2019

December 01, 2019

World AIDS Day

World AIDS Day

World AIDS Day 


World AIDS Day was first visualized by Thomas letter and James W Bunn in the month of August in 1987 they were the public information officers for the AIDS global program at the w-h-o or World Health Organization in Geneva Switzerland first December this is the date 

when World AIDS Day is celebrated across the globe it is the first-ever Global Health Day for the first time it was celebrated in the year 1988 and since then every year World AIDS Day events take place across the world to raise awareness and show support for people President of United States living with HIV officially announced World AIDS Day in May



Which was followed throughout the world the joint United Nations program on HIV and AIDS which is also called un aids came into effect in the year 1996 it is the main advocate for accelerated comprehensive and coordinated global action on the epidemic friends it's which is called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV HIV kills or damages the body's immune system.

There two types of HIV virus type 1 and type 2 the type 1 AIDS is the common in India the red ribbon as you can see here is the universal symbol of awareness and support for those living with HIV on World AIDS Day this is an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate the people who have died because of this virus globally there are an estimated 34 million people More than 3 million people have died from HIV or AIDS, and despite having only 1 virus, it has become the most devastating epidemic in history.

over 1 million people are living with HIV in the UK & India has the third-highest number of estimated people living with HIV in the world I would like to tell you what are the major causes of aids using infected needles having sexual contact with the infected person blood transfusion which is infected with the virus or from an infected mother it could pass on to her child approximately 2.6 million children under the age of 15 years are affected by this virus also an estimated children were newly infected with HIV in 2014 friends 600 children are newly infected with HIV every day

The theme for the year 2011 to 2015 for the World AIDS Day campaign is getting to zero-zero new HIV infections zero discrimination zero AIDS-related death World AIDS Day get to zero no new HIV infections no AIDS-related deaths no discrimination this is the theme for the World AIDS Day friends let us take the lead and pledge our support for World AIDS Day December 1st do remember this date stand up and make a difference by wearing the red ribbon .



World AIDS Day


20 Facts about World AIDS Day


1. World AIDS Day is held on the 1st of December each year and is an opportunity for people worldwide to show their support for people living with HIV.

2. aids (acquired immune deficiency syndrome refers to the most advanced stages of HIV infection. 

3.HIV (human immunodeficiency virus is a virus) that infects the immune system decreasing its ability to fight off other infections and diseases.

4. there are two strains of HIV HIV one which has been traced back to chimpanzees and HIV two which came from a small African monkey.

5. HIV can be transmitted through unprotected sex transmission of infected blood or sharing infected needles. 

6.HIV the virus that causes AIDS was discovered in 1981. 

7.about 35 million people have died from HIV/aids-related causes since its discovery in 1981. 

8.there were thirty-six point seven million people living with HIV worldwide.

9. as of June 2016 18 point two million people living with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy. 

10.worldwide 2.1 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2015.

11.there were 1.9 million children living with HIV around the world in 2015.

12.approximately 74% of HIV/aids diagnoses were in males and 26% in females.

13.every 9.5 minutes someone is diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.

 14. more than 700 children become newly infected with HIV each day. 

15.sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region with nearly one in every 20 adults living with HIV.

16.the earliest confirmed case of aids and humans comes from Kinshasa the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

17. 80% of people who are infected with HIV experience flu-like symptoms within two to four weeks after becoming infected.

18. aids-related deaths have fallen by 45% since the peak in 2005.

19.HIV testing is quick and easy and boils fluid sample or fingerprint tests can deliver an answer in 10 to 20 minutes.

20. with today's strong drugs early HIV symptoms go away and many HIV-positive people never experience symptoms again


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Saturday, 23 November 2019

November 23, 2019

what is Geeta gayanti ? (गीता जयंती क्या है?)

what is Geeta Jayanti? (गीता जयंती क्या है?)




नमस्ते मित्रो, आज आपको हम गीता जयंती की एक अनोखी कहानी सुनाते हैं


आज से 70 80 साल पहले हमारा भारत देश जब आजाद नहीं हुआ था उस समय देश को आजाद करने के लिए कई स्वतंत्र सेनानियों ने अपने जान की बाजी लगा दी.

महात्मा गांधी सुभाषचंद्र बोस लालबहादुर शास्त्री सरदार वल्लभभाई पटेल कुछउनके नाम तो हम जानते हैं पर कुछ उनके नाम हम बिल्कुल नहीं जानते.

उस आम आदमी के नाम तो हम बिल्कुल नहीं जानते. जिन लोगों ने हमारे  भारत देश को आजाद करने के लिए बड़ी खुशी खुशी फांसी पर चढ़ जाना स्वीकार कर लिया है.



ऐसे कई लोग थे. जब जलियांवाला बाग में एक एक करके अंग्रेजों के सामने आते और बंदूक की

गोली खाकर भारत माता की जय भारत माता की जय भारत माता की जय. बच्चो मेरे पीछे बनोगे

भारत माता की. भारत माता की. भारतमाता की जय या वंदे मातरम कहते हुए हंसते हंसते प्राण त्याग देते थे.

कहते थे बच्चे अंग्रेजों को चला दो गोली सीना तानकर खड़े रहकर आंखों में आंखें डालकर इतनी निर्भीकता

अंग्रेजों में आज के पहले किन बच्चों में नहीं देखी शायद उनके देश के बच्चे हो सकता है कॉकरोच से डरते हैं.



हो सकता है कि उनके बच्चे दूर से चलती हुई छिपकली को देखकर डर जाते हों कि छिपकली है

क्यों डर मारे बेटा क्योंकि ऊपर छिपकली है और सोफा पर चढ़ जाते थे हो सकता है ऐसी निर्भीकता

अंग्रेजों ने आज के पहले कभी कहीं ना देखी हो. उनकी पुत्री.

जवाब देने लग जाती थी. बच्चों के इतने जोश और उत्साह को देशभक्ति को देखकर

और हो भी क्यों न बच्चों में वो जो भक्ति थी अपने देश को आजाद कराने की.

इतने छोटे छोटे मासूम बच्चों को देखकर अंग्रेजों की बंदूके नीचे हो जाती थी.


फिर भी वो इतने जोश से ललकारते थे कि अंग्रेजों को पर बस उन पर गोली चलानी पड़ती.

बच्चों आज आप और हम मुक्त भारत में सांस ले पाते हैं ये उन छोटे छोटे मासूम बच्चों

और हमारे बड़े बुजुर्ग माता पिता के समान उन लोगों की परिधानों का परिणाम है. हमारा उनको सलाम है.


हमारा उनको नमस्कार है. आपको पता है चुप उन बच्चों में इतनी निर्भीकता थी कि वे अंग्रेजों के सामने आते.

और कुछ बड़बड़ाते थे. कुछ बड़बड़ाते और. सीना चौड़ा करके खड़े रहते. खुशी खुशी गोली खाते और

भारत माता की जय करके प्राण त्याग देते. आखिर ऐसा जज्बाती कर. अंग्रेजों के मन में.
हलचल मच गई. एक अंग्रेज अधिकारी ने अपने भारतीय अफसर को बुलाया और. पूछा. हे भारतवासी.
तुम बच्चों को क्या पढ़ाता है. इतनी सी छोटी सी उम्र में बच्चा इतना बेखौफ कैसे हो सकता है. मजबूत प्राण बोलबाला.

वो अधिकारी. अंग्रेज अधिकारी को कहता है. सर ये ताकत कमाल है. अंग्रेज ने कहा कि.

हे शेट्टी वो समझ रहा था कि गीता शायद कोई लड़की हो. खुर्शीद. उसने थोड़ी सी ऊंची आवाज में कहा. डैडी. बेटा.

भारतीय अफसर पड़ी जोर से हंसने लग गया. सर. यह कोई पुरुष या स्त्री नहीं जिसे अरेस्ट किया जा सके.
यह तो हमारा राष्ट्रीय ग्रंथ है श्रीमद् भगवत गीता. ऑफिसर ने कहा इस 100 दिन.

आदर और गीता. कर्मचारी फिर जोर से हंसा. सर. जिसे आप अरेस्ट करने की बात कर रहे हैं ना.

वो आज नहीं पांच हजार साल पहले होके इस धरती से. ये तो एक किताब है. एक ग्रंथ है जिसे पढ़कर बच्चे निडर और निर्भिक हो गए हैं.

इन बच्चों के दिनों में. भी. खौफ. प्राण त्यागने की जो ताकत आ रही है.

वो बच्चे गीता पढ़कर हुई हैं. सर. उस भगवान कृष्ण. को आप अरेस्ट कैसे करोगे. किन हथकड़ियों में कैद करोगी.

अफसर. सिर खुजलाने लगा. सोच में पड़ गया. आखिर ऐसा तो तुम्हारी गीता में क्या लिखा है.

जिससे यहां का बच्चा बच्चा निर्भीक से. अंग्रेज बच्चों के सामने जाता है. और पूछता है.

हे बच्चा. तुम डाटा नहीं. तुम बेटा नहीं बंदूक से डेटा नहीं. वो बच्चे. आंखों में आंखें डालकर.

कहता है हम पर. गोली चला तुम व्यर्थ में. बातचीत करके समय को नष्ट न करो.
गोली चला मैं अपने देश को आजाद करना चाहता हूं क्या बच्चों की निर्भिकता थी.



क्या निर्धनता अँग्रेज सिर खुजलाने लग जाते थे. आखिर उसने पूछा. उस अफसर से भारतीय अफसर से. कि. ऐसा तो गीता में क्या लिखा है.
भारतीय ने कहा सर. जब आप पढ़ोगे तभी तो पता चलेगा न. पर मैं एक बात बता देता हूं. हमारे यहां रात को बच्चे सोते हैं

तब माताएं गीता का एक श्लोक लोरी में गाकर उन्हें सुनाती हैं. जिस कारण से यहां के बच्चे.

निडरता और तेजस्विता के धनी हैं. इंटेलिजेन्स. शार्प माइंड. हाई क्रासिंग पावर. कीन आप सर पर हैं.

अफसर ने पूछा. क्या है वह श्लोक. जिसके सुनने मात्र से ऐसी वीरता आ जाती है.

तब छोटे छोटे बच्चे एक साथ बोल पड़े. नयना मिशन जयंती श्रावणी नैना देहाती पापा कहा.

न चैनल ममता का न शोषण. हमें गीता के श्लोक पढते हैं. आप पूछ रहे थे न कि बचा लो तुम क्या बनाती है हम बढाती है. सर. ये बच्चे सही कहते हैं.



जब हमारे यहां रात को बच्चे सो जाते हैं तब माताएं सिर पर हाथ फेरते हुए इस श्लोक का उच्चारण करती है.

अर्थात. हे पुत्र. तू ये शरीर नहीं है. तो आत्मा है और आत्मा किसी भी शस्त्र से काटी नहीं जाती. आत्मा को अग्नि चला नहीं सकती.

आत्मा को पहाड़ों से फेंको उसे कोई मार नहीं सकता. आत्मा को पानी में कोई डुबान ही सकता.

तुम अजर अमर आत्मा हो. यह मरने वाला शरीर तो नहीं है. शरीर अगर मर जाए पर आत्मा कभी नहीं मरती पुत्र.

आत्मा तो. शरीर बदलती है. जैसे हम. कपड़े बदलते हैं. पुत्र अपने देश के प्रति भक्ति से. कभी भी चूकना मत देखना मत हारना मत पत्र.

मेरी कोख और मेरे दूत की सदैव लाज रखना. अपने कर्तव्य का पालन करते हुए तेरे प्राण भी चले जाएं. तू अमर हो जाएगा.

कीर्तिमान हो जाएगा यशस्वी हो जाएगा सर हमारे यहां माताएं भगवद् गीता का यह निर्भय नाद सुनाकर बच्चों को सुनाती हैं.

और उनकी परवरिश इसी प्रकार होती. यही गीता का ज्ञान इन बच्चों के स्वर मित्तल शक्ति ज्वाला की तरह आपके पसीने छुड़ा रहा है सर.


बच्चों. हम अगर अपनी ओर गौर करें तो क्या इतनी निडरता इतनी निर्भीकता इतना इंटेलिजेंस इतना शार्प माइंड आज हमारे पास है.

हम भयभीत हो गए हैं. उन्हीं अंग्रेजों के बच्चों की तरह जो छिपकलियों से डर जाते जो कॉकरोच से डर जाते. आप उस भारत माता की संतान हो बच्चों.

जिस. भारत का नाम. उस. भरत से पड़ा जो पाँच वर्ष का था. और शेर के बच्चे के दाँत गिनता था. मां.

ढूंढ़ते ढूंढ़ते बच्ची थक गई. बेटा भरत. और बेटा भरत कहां हो बेटा. मां बुला रही है. बेटा भरत. कहां हो.

जंगल से आवाज आती है मां मैं यहां हूं. मां जाकर देखती हैं उनको शेर का छोटा सा बच्चा. भरत उसका जबड़ा

फाड़कर दाँत गिन रहे खुद के भी गिन रहे हैं और उस शेर के बच्चे को भी गेंडा मिल जाएगा.



पेले के भी एक दांत मिला दुशाला दांत तुझे विदूषक नादान मिला तीर चलाना तुझे मितेश ला दांत पालना मुझे.

पहरेदार तुझे अपन दोनों दोनों देश निकाल लेते हैं. क्या निर्भिक बच्चे थे. हमारे. उसी निर्भीक और निडर

तेजस्वी बालक भरत के नाम से हमारे देश का नाम भारत पड़ा. आज आप देखिए बच्चों केवल 70 80 साल ही

बीते होंगे शायद हम इतने कमजोर हो गए. जब से हम अपनी संस्कृति को भूले हैं जब से वेस्टर्न कल्चर को हमने फॉलो किया है.

तबसे हम डरपोक हो गए. छिपकली कॉकरोच और मेंढकों से डरने लगे क्योंकि हमारा प्राण बल कमजोर हो गया. गीता पढ़ कर.

अंग्रेजों के छक्के छुड़ाने वाले उन बच्चों की ताकत को देखो और आप भी ऐसे ही निर्भीक बने जैसे आपके पूर्वकाल

में आप जैसे ही छोटे छोटे बच्चे निडर और निर्भीक बन कर अंग्रेजों के पसीने छुड़ा देते थे. गीता के श्लोकों को

पढ़ने से स्मरणशक्ति बढ़ती है. बार बार. रिविजन नहीं करना पड़ता. लर्निंग पावर बढ़ती है. भी. मेरे पीछे पीछे श्लोक का

उच्चारण करें शस्त्र पानी ही नहीं है न ही न शोशा मारता है बच्चों.



हर रोज गीता जी का पाठ कर अपने जीवन को उन्नत बनाएं. गीता में वो सब कुछ है.

जो आप हासिल करना चाहते हैं. इसलिए बच्चों वीर बनो निडर बनो निर्भीक बनो. अच्छे बुद्धिमान बनो. तेजस्वी बनो साहसी बनो.

ये. सबकुछ. गीता जी के साथ. सब कुछ आपको. गीता से हासिल हो सकता है. इसलिए. गीता जी पढ़ें श्लोकों का उच्चारण करें.

और अपने जीवन को महान भारत माता की. भारत. माता की भारत माता की. श्रीमद भगवत गीता की श्रीमद् भगवत गीता की श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता की।

what is Geeta gayanti ? (गीता जयंती क्या है?)

Geeta Jayanti 2019 is on 8th December Sunday (गीता जयंती 8 दिसंबर 2019 रविवार को है)


what is geeta gayanti ? (गीता जयंती क्या है?)


Rituals of the Festival (महोत्सव के अनुष्ठान)


  • इस विशेष दिन पर गीता के एक स्पष्टीकरण के माध्यम से आज के युवाओं को धर्म के मूल्य सिखाने के लिए कई आयोजित समारोह आयोजित किए गए हैं।

  • भगवान कृष्ण को समर्पित मंदिर इस दिन को बहुत उत्साह के साथ मनाते हैं, जिसमें विशेष पूजा के साथ पूजा करना भी शामिल है।

  • देश और विदेश के विभिन्न हिस्सों से भक्त इस दिन कुरुक्षेत्र की यात्रा करना पसंद करते हैं और पवित्र तालाबों में पवित्र स्नान करते हैं।

  • पवित्र स्नान के अलावा, भगवान कृष्ण की पूजा अंत में आरती के साथ घर पर की जा सकती है।

  • चूंकि यह एकादशी पर मनाया जाता है, इसलिए यह महत्वपूर्ण है कि इस दिन उपवास करने वाले भक्त चावल, गेहूं और जौ जैसे अनाज का सेवन नहीं करते हैं।




Wednesday, 20 November 2019

November 20, 2019

Unemployment in India report :


Unemployment in India report: How Modi govt wants Data Manipulation! | Analysis by Dhruv Rathee


Some people will say this glass is half full. Others would say it is half empty. it is said that it depends on your point of view. Are you a positive thinker or a negative thinker? 

Unemployment in India report :

But those are the interesting people who, see this glass as half full too! 

Unemployment in India report :

Such a half positive person is our Jaggi Ji. Jaggi Ji thinks that record unemployment in our country today is a half positive event. Why? 

He says, "higher unemployment rate indicates that more people are now looking for work". Which means according to him it is a good thing. a half positive thing. I did not understand the logic, but according to it, if there are famines in our country, then that would mean more people are trying to find ways to get out of the famine. So this would be half positive too! If we have more poverty in our country, that would mean more people are trying to get out of poverty.
Unemployment in India report :
This will be a half positive thing too. The new report of NSSO revealed shocking data on unemployment. Friends, today the unemployment in our country is the worst in the last 45 years. The unemployment rate has now broken all records and is at 6.1%. 
If you compare it with the historical data of NSSO like you can see in this chart, You will see the bad condition it is in. If you breakdown the youth unemployment, You will see that unemployment in the urban areas is worse than in the rural areas. 

Unemployment in India report :


The youth unemployment rate among urban males is 18.7% currently. And among the urban females, it is 27.2%. These terrifying data have shocked everyone. So it is obvious that questions were asked about the authenticity of NSSO. And about the accuracy and trustworthiness of the report. NSSO is the National Sample Survey Office. 



This is a large department under the Ministry of Statistics. Which works to collect data and conduct large scale surveys across the country. They conduct surveys on factories and jobs. The survey on jobs was conducted once in every five years till 2012-13. After which the Government decided that it should be conducted every year. According to which the latest report is based on the data of 2017-18. The survey before this was conducted in 2012-13. 


The comparison that you can see here, It was 6.1% in 2017-18, before which the data is of 2012-13. This new survey was conducted from July 2017 to July 2018, and in December 2018, the report was finalized. Friends of these surveys are 'household surveys'. This means that the employees of NSSO visit the households to ask for the employment status of the members of the family. More than 1 lakh households across all the states in the country were surveyed. It included all the people from the various social and economic categories

Unemployment in India report :



It included people from all walks of life. Overall it can be said that historically the reports of NSSO, were the best indicators regarding the unemployment in the country. In fact, I would say it is the most trustable source of data. The reason for this is very simple. It is because most of the jobs in our country are in the informal sectors. 90%% of jobs are said to be in the informal sector. And if we use data from any other source, such as EPFO or some data of a company, we neglect all these informal jobs. So the easiest and the most trustable method to check is surveying the households in a sample size. 


Surveying each household about the employment status in the family, the number of people unemployed and employed. And based on that we can draw conclusions about the actual status in the country. Friends, I am not the only one saying this, The Chairman of our Prime Minister's Economic Advisory Council, Bibek Debroy said the exact same thing that, NSSO is the best method to measure unemployment. In India, a large part of employment is still self-employed. It is still in the area of the unorganized sector, it is still in the informal sector. 

Therefore the enterprise surveys do not tell us anything significant. The only sensible way we can get the data on the jobs and employment is through household surveys, which is what the NSSO does. In 2017 when Modi Government was blamed for the growth in joblessness in our country. People are not getting jobs in our country. So friends, in June 2017 Modi Government decided that to calculate employment, a new method should be created because the method which was used was termed 'wrong'. So the Modi government created a task force. to develop a new method to calculate employment. 


This task force was led by the then Vice-Chairman of Niti Aayog, Arvind Panagariya. In June 2017, Arvind Ji gave an interview to Hindustan Times where he said: "the best and the most extensive survey is by the NSSO and it is the most reliable one". "Its frequency is very low and that's why I propose to conduct the survey every year." You can see now that the people appointed by the Modi Government itself say that NSSO is the most trustable and the most reliable data. NSSO is a Department under the Ministry which is under the Government. 

Unemployment in India report :

Our Government can manipulate this survey and the data. How can this be prevented? To prevent this, in 2005, a new independent body was created NSC. National Statistical Commission. NSC was supposed to check and approve the surveys, data, and reports of NSSO. Because NSC is an autonomous and independent body, there was no influence on the Government. 


This is why NSC could independently check if the NSSO surveys were unbiased and correct. NSC was doing this job until now. The problem that arose is that this report shows the failure of the Modi Government. That they failed to provide jobs If the report went public, it would have meant an insult for them. So our Government's Ministry did not let this report be released. 

Although this report was checked, approved and finalized by the NSC. Still, they did not let is be released. So you would ask how did we get this information. We got this information through a journalist, Somesh Jha. Somesh Jha is a journalist at the Business Standard. 

Who used his own sources to access this report and revealed the data publically to everyone. Obviously, friends NSC's independent members did not like that the Government is hiding this data. And wants to hide the truth from the people. So the members of NSC asked why the independent body was needed in that case, if the Government wants to manipulate the data they can do so themselves they do not need the NSC members. 

Unemployment in India report :


This was the reason why two of the independent members of NSC resigned. NSC has posts for seven members. Three of the posts were anyhow empty. Two members resigned now, and the remaining two are members of the Government, one is the CEO of Niti Aayog and the other is the Chief Statistician. Both of them are members of the Government. Which means that the NSC is not an independent body anymore. Another institution was destroyed by the Modi Government. 


That's my opinion. Similar to the crises in the Supreme Court, CBI, and RBI last year. Now the National Statistical Commission is going through the same thing. The independence of the institutions is being ended. It is very clearly evident. I am saying this is my opinion but even you can clearly see what's happening here. Only two members remain in the NSC. Both of whom are members of the Government. 


The two members who resigned from NSC also claim that there were disagreements between them and the Central Government about the data on GDP. as well as on the data of the Labour Force Survey. You can see that the Government was interfering and trying to manipulate all the data. When journalist Somesh Ji publicly revealed the data, all the members of our Government started defending this and making excuses for it. 


The first person that was sent to defend the Government was the Vice Chairman of Niti Aaron, Rajiv Kumar. In the beginning, he seemed very confused. This report that is being cited and the data that is being cited is not yet been finalized and approved by the Government. Who else will approve it? I suppose the Cabinet will approve it. "Cabinet Sir?' I don't know. I.. My honest answer is that I don't know. How can we reveal that to you? 'Because the report is with you.' But we don't have it. 

Unemployment in India report :


If we had the final report, I would have told you. Then the Chief of the Niti Aayog was sent who started citing the data of Ola and Uber. He talked about the growth in Ola and Uber and how it is a new source of employment. In 2014, Ola had 37,000 registered partner drivers across 20 states. Now they have a million registered partner drivers.... and Uber has over 1.2 million registered... Ola and Uber, both have created about 2 million employment. You can say about 15-20% maybe. Meanwhile, Piyush Goyal Ji gave an interview where he said that the nature of jobs has changed. 



Which is why the NSSO report does not have credible data. Whereas the BJP members tweet urging people to check the data of EPFO, Mudra Loans, to see the number of employment generated. Friends all these people are citing all these sources, I would like to tell you that the NSSO survey is a household survey. All the various types of households, sectors, and jobs were covered in the survey. Whether it was Ola, Uber, EPFO, Mudra Loan or any kind of self-employment. 
Unemployment in India report :


All the kinds of employment were covered before compiling this data. On the other hand, Jaitley Ji says that this was only the draft, not the finalized report. But even that is not the truth, Somesh Ji clearly said that this report was finalized by the NSC. It does not need Government approval, the Government is simply stopping it from being released. It is being said that the Government will release a new NSSO report which will show a growth in employment. 


I do not have any doubt, the Government might do it. Because the NSC is not independent anymore. They are the Government's members and can manipulate the data as they wish. This was the story of unemployment and unemployment data in our country. According to me, there is no doubt that our country is going through one of the worst job crisis. 


I would like to say this, even if you already have a job, it is still terrible that there is a job crisis in our country. Because if many people are after one job, and you are employed somewhere, if you are treated wrong or you need a salary hike, you cannot demand that, because there is a risk that your employer may hire someone else at a lower salary. Overall, 


I am trying to say that it is a terrible thing for all of us that joblessness has increased so much in our country. Whether you are employed or unemployed. I would like to share the possible solutions for this in another blog. After analyzing data of the other countries, consulting experts. 


I would like to thank Somesh Ji very much, I talked to him and asked him all my doubts. He contributed a lot towards making this blog. Share this blog so that people know the actual situation of our country. If you like my work and want to support me, you can do so at patreon.com/dhruvrathee So that I can make more such blog for you in the future. We shall meet in the next blog friends. Thank You! 


Analysis by Dhruv Rathee✌

Tuesday, 19 November 2019

November 19, 2019

International Men's Day




Hey, you guys I hope you're all well. So November 19th was International Men's Day which is kind of like International Women's Day but without all the virtue signaling, number one trending hashtags and adoring global media coverage. 


Nevertheless, International Men's Day soldiers on as a day to appreciate all the good blokes in our lives and to recognize the many, many, many wonderful achievements of men. Just like International Women's Day, International Men's Day also serves as an occasion to recognize many of the problems and disadvantages that a lot of men face. Take for example homelessness.

 According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 59 percent of homeless people in Australia are men. Similarly in the USA just under 61 percent of the homeless of men. Or take male suicide rates. In Australia, 75 percent of suicides were men averaging out at one every four hours. That's six men taking their own lives every day. 

Then, of course, there is the very very taboo topic of male victims of domestic violence. Again according to the ABS one in three victims of domestic violence are male yet that quite significant statistic receives zero attention from the media and not a hint of government-directed programs to address the problem

Or how about the fact that fewer men than women graduate from high school and university, or the fact that 99 percent of military deaths and at least 95 percent of workplace deaths are men. Men work all the worst most dangerous jobs, they work the longest hours, they pay most of the tax they take less out of the welfare system than women do and they even die several years earlier on average than women. 

Given these rather dire statistics, it would seem fair enough that like we do on International Women's Day for women's issues, we use November 19th as an opportunity to shine a light on some of these rather serious issues that men face and try to -- you know to address them. 

That to the rational thinking person would seem perfectly reasonable, after all, we're all human beings and all deserving of recognition and compassion for that which makes us suffer regardless of gender, race, sexuality, etc. 

Right? Well not according to the left-wing dominated mainstream media who don't say boo about International Men's Day and certainly not to feminist thought leaders and their adherence. It's not so much that they ignore the day instead they bear a strange and very distinct animosity towards it. 

They use it as an opportunity to make fun of men, make fun of men's rights activists and really make fun of anyone who even thinks of suggesting that men have anything less than an easy ride through this life. This marks the difference between feminists and says men's rights activists. MRAs are generally perfectly happy to have a discussion about women's rights and indeed support women's rights. 

Their goal is simply to gain recognition for men's issues and work towards solving them. Feminists, on the other hand, will not have a bar of men's rights or men's issues and demonize anyone who does as a misogynist, a rape apologist or whatever another derogatory term is in vogue at the time. 

Now this strange feminist animosity used to really mystify me and still mystifies a lot of people. However, after a lot of thinking about it so you don't have to, I believe I have worked it out and so in honor of International Men's Day I am going to attempt to explain it. - Please explain - The third-wave feminist narrative rests in large part upon the concept of "male privilege". A conspiracy theory asserts that men namely white men are inherently privileged over women by virtue of nothing but their gender. Feminists argue that we live in a patriarchy and that there is an imbalance of power that favors men. 

When asked to explain this feminist generally bring up the oft debunked wage gap - (Shoe0nHead) The wage gap is simply the average earnings of men and women working full-time it does not count for different job positions, hours work or different jobs it has nothing to do with the same job it has nothing to do with discrimination. - Or the fact that the vast majority of CEOs, politicians and other high-paying powerful jobs are occupied by men. 

Really actually it's just those two things they base the theory on other than occasional claims of something called male entitlement which when you get them talking about it is actually extremely subjective. Nevertheless, feminists are noisy enough about these things to convince the intellectually sub-par that their argument actually has some basis in truth. 

This attitude ties into the Marxist theory that one group has power over another with the less powerful group necessitating a violent revolution to topple the powerful. In the context of Karl Marx, this was the bourgeoisie versus the proletariat. Through a feminist prism however it is the oppressor men versus the oppressed women. Feminists believe that men no matter their station in life inherently oppress women simply by existing. 

Now, this attitude breeds a violently tribal mentality as evidenced by their denigration and attempts to punish women who are not feminists or simply disagree with some feminist principles. Take Australian feminist Clementine Ford's opinion of women who aren't feminists. - Women who sneer at feminism because they need men to know how much they love them have no idea how quickly those same men will turn on them the moment they step out of line. Have some *bleep* self-respect. 

I know this will rile some people up but #sorrynotsorry because it's bloody true. Also, this is specifically aimed at women who argue that feminism is a man-hating movement and that they don't hate men they love them and think they're just wonderful. - In other words, if you're not with us against the vile male oppressors there's something wrong with you, you're against us and you're a gender traitor. 

Now this assertion from Clementine and others like her is obviously very juvenile and demonstrates an inability to think critically but for some reason, that's where they're at. The problem with the conspiracy theory of male privilege is that actually has very little basis in fact. Male privilege is based on what's known as the apex fallacy. 

That is the notion that the experiences of those at the top end of an identity group are representative of the experiences of all members of that group. So while feminists will argue that white men are privileged because they make up the ranks of the most economically privileged that is a tiny percentage of men and is in no way an accurate representation of the experiences of men at large. 

I'm going to let Jordan Peterson explain this one he does it much better than I do. - In what sense is our society male-dominated? - The fact that the vast majority of wealth is owned by men, the vast majority of capital and is owned by men, women do more unpaid labor - A very tiny proportion of men and a huge proportion of people who are seriously disaffected are men, most people in prison are men, most people who are on the street are men, most victims of violent crime are men, most people who commit suicide are men, most men -- most people who die in wars are men, people who do worse in school are men. 

It's like where's the dominance here precisely? What you're doing is you're taking tiny substrata of hyper-successful men and using that to represent the entire structure of the -- of Western society. There's nothing about that's vaguely appropriate. - This Marxist prism of the oppressor versus the oppressed or the battle of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat necessarily dictates that there is only so much equality to go around and that in order to take it one group has to cede power so to speak whether voluntarily or by force. 

Now unlike conservatives and libertarians, who think in terms of the individual and the limitless potential of that individual to make something of themselves with the right choices and a few luck feminists believe that people succeed and fail as a pack, rather than as singular people. That's why they're so set on quotas and equality of outcome rather than equality of opportunity and merit. 


International Men's Day



If you don't believe in the concept of the individual as the ultimate source of success then, of course, you're going to think equality of outcome is a good idea. After all, it doesn't matter what the individual puts in it's what the pack out of it that's important. So the feminist idea of success is decorating corporate boards and political parties, the police force, etc with an equal number of women to men regardless of their merit it's all about how things look and how everything seems on the surface, not about substance.

Now this brings me to the real reason feminists feel such flagrant animosity towards not just International Men's Day but men's rights in general. Because they are so steeped in this Marxist notion that there is only so much equality to go around they genuinely believe that men's rights and women's rights cannot exist in tandem. 

They believe that if the so-called oppressor gets even so much as a look in and that knocks back the rights of the allegedly oppressed. They genuinely feel that any discussion of men's issues necessarily detracts from women's issues regardless of the fact that women's issues get infinitely more time and sympathy in the mainstream cultural arena than men's issues. 

To the casual observer, this feminist mindset is quite clearly ludicrous, like they live in fantasy land. It's like they believe that they're in Harry Potter and that they're the terrified desperate Hogwarts students trying valiantly to overthrow the Death Eaters When really they're in Daddy Daycares the bratty unruly children running around while Eddie Murphy or rational thinking people try desperately to placate and clean up after them all the while hoping that eventually they'll run out of steam and take a nap. But it does explain their defensiveness whenever International Men's Day rolls around. 

It's easy to roll your eyes at their delusion but really I think we should pity them. Can you imagine having got yourself into such a state of depression and self-loathing that you have actually constructed and are living out this Marxist horror story? It must be awful living as someone whose entire existence is based on a lie. So if you haven't already -- take a moment to acknowledge all the good men in your life. 

They go through more than they let on. Women have issues and so do men. If we want to make a better world it's very important to remember that addressing them is not mutually exclusive. If you liked this blog please remember to like, share, leave me a comment and if you really really liked it thankyou.

Saturday, 16 November 2019

November 16, 2019

Biography of Swami Vivekananda




Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda


Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 was born in Kolkata. His father's name was Vishwanath Dutt and his mother's name was Bhuvaneshwari Devi. Before he became a hermit his name was Narenranath Dutt. And he was also known as Naren. Vishwanath Dutt was Attorney at Law at Kolkata's high court. 

He used to practice law at the Kolkata high school. He was a thinker. A person who was extremely kind. He had a great deal of empathy towards the poor. He had an emotional and constructive perspective on religious and social matters. Bhuvaneshwari Devi was a very simple and affectionate lady. His father believed in western culture. He wanted to educate his son Narendra in English.. ..and make him follow the western culture. Narendra was always very sharp. And his interest lied in God and spirituality. Hence he joined the Brahma society first. But he didn't find peace there. In the meanwhile, he had graduated in BA from Kolkata University. And started preparing for the law exam. But he didn't find any answers to his doubts anywhere. 

Swami Ramakrishna Paramhans asked Narendra as soon as he saw him. Can you sing a hymn? Narendra said. Yes, I can. Then Narendra sang a couple of hymns in his melodious voice. Swami Paramhans was really pleased with his hymns. From that time Narendra started singing hymns for Swami Paramhans. And became his disciple. He had become a staunch follower of the Veda theology. Between 1887 to 1892 Swami Vivekanand ji lived his life of anonymity. After performing penance in a life of solitude he went on a tour of India. Swami Vivekanand wanted to make an important contribution to the propaganda of Veda and Yoga in the western culture. 

He was a famous and impactful guru of the Vedas. His real name was Narendra Nath Dutt. Narendra Nath Dutt had represented the Hindu ideology at the world religious conference at Chicago in 1893. India's Vedas managed to reach every country of America and Europe. thanks to Swami Vivekanand. 

He is known for starting the speech he made in the US with the line my dear American brothers and sisters. Swami Vivekanand has mentioned Pawhari Baba at various places in his speech and writing. Pahari means someone who feeds on air. A well-known fact about Pawhari Baba was that he wouldn't eat anything. He was really impressed by this weird sage and he also penned Pawhari Baba's biography. Pahari Baba used to live in a cave. 

He would meditate in the cave for days and months on end. No one knows what he uses to eat during that long period. That's why people named him Pawhari Baba. Pahari meant someone who feeds on air. Someone who spends his life only by consuming air. 

His speech read. Get up. Wake up and don't stop till you achieve your goal. I teach love and love the only and my teaching is based on the great facts of the Vedas which enlighten us about equality and completeness of the soul. Success has three important aspects. Purity, patience, and determination. But what's above everything is love. Explain to yourself and explain it to others. 

Call out to the soul that's asleep and see how it comes to life. My ideologies can be expressed in these words only. Humankind should use divinity at every step of the age. We strive to get more in life because of power only. And this makes us commit sins and invite sorrow. Weakness is the reason for sins and sorrows. Weakness opens the door for ignorance. And ignorance opens the door for sorrow. 

If you have faith in 33 crore Gods and Goddesses but not in your own self then you cannot attain salvation. Have faith in yourself. Stay dogged and become strong. This is what we need. The maxim of Swami's ideologies is inspired by a mantra of the Kath Upanishad. 

Swami Vivekananda is known as the greatest philosopher and spiritual leader of the 20th century for his fearless courage, his positive exhortations to the youth. 

"In a day, when you don't come across any problems - you can be sure that you are traveling in a wrong path "

"In a day when you don't come across any problems - you can be sure that you are traveling in a wrong "

"The greatest religion is to be true to your own nature. Have faith in yourselves." 

"Dare to be free, dare to go as far as your thought leads, and dare to carry that out in your life. " 

"Anything that makes weak - physically, intellectually and spiritually, reject it as poison." 

"Be not afraid of anything. You will do Marvelous work. it is Fearlessness that brings Heaven even in a moment." 

"arise, awake, stop not until your goal is achieved." 

"We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far. "

 "You cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself." 

"Strength is Life, Weakness is Death. Expansion is Life, Contraction is Death. Love is Life, Hatred is Death." 

Thursday, 14 November 2019

November 14, 2019

Biography of Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin 


This month is the 200th anniversary of the birth of one of the most influential thinkers in science history Charles Darwin developed the theory of how living things develop from simpler organisms over long periods of time that theory is known as evolution through natural selection how do new kinds of life come into existence for much of recorded history people have believed that organisms were created few people believe that living things changed what process could make such change possible these were some of the questions Charles Darwin asked himself over years of research in botany zoology and geology he was not the first person to ask them his own grandfather Erasmus.

Darwin believed that species evolved and others like the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck had proposed ways this could happen but it was Darwin who identified and explained the process natural selection that causes life to evolve Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury England on February 12th 1809 his father Robert Darwin was a doctor Charles mother Susannah Darwin was the daughter of the famous Potter Josiah Wedgwood she died when Charles was only 8 years old young Charles was intensely interested in the natural world from an early age but his father wanted him to be a doctor at age 16 Charles was sent to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh but he did not like it he found medical operations especially horrible he later went to Cambridge University his father now hoped that Darwin would become a clergyman but at Cambridge.

Charles continued to follow his own interests there he met John Henslow plant scientist and clergyman the two became friends John Henslow suggested that Charles Darwin take the unpaid position of naturalist for a trip on the British ship HMS Beagle it sailed around the world from 1831 to 1836 the main goal was to make maps of the coastline of South America the British government paid for the voyage but another purpose of the trip was to collect scientific objects from around the world the beagles first stop was one of the cape Verde islands near the coast of Africa there Darwin noted that levels of rock extending high above the sea contained the fossil remains of shells 

he thought that this was evidence that the bottom of the ocean had been lifted up by powerful geological forces over long periods of time the Beagle continued to the coast of South America in Valdivia Chile Darwin experienced an earthquake he collected examples of plants and animals he also collected the fossil remains of animals that had disappeared from the earth but it was on the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador that Darwin found creatures that made him wonder about how species develop and change there he saw giant tortoises and noted that the reptiles were different on each Island.

he collected Birds each with different beaks later after he had returned to England he would be shocked to find that these very different birds were all finches Darwin found lizards called iguanas that lived on land and ones that fed in the sea Darwin noted that all these species were similar to those found in South America but they all had differences or adaptations that helped them survive in the environment of the Galapagos Islands.

Darwyn sent much of what he collected back to England on other ships the Beagle met along the way by the time he returned to England in October of 1836 he was already a well-known geologist and naturalist within a few years he would be accepted into scientific organizations like the Geological Society and the Royal Society.

 Darwin moved to London to be near other scientists he wrote a new version of the book about his travels he also edited works of others about the things he had collected on his trip Darwin also agreed to write several books including the zoology of the voyage of the HMS Beagle but in 1837 the pressure of the work caused his health to suffer.

he developed problems with his heart Charles Darwin had poor health much of his life he suffered headaches and problems with his skin and stomach no one was able to find out what disease he may have had during his lifetime recently some experts have suggested that he might have become infected with tropical disease other suggest.

Darwin's health problems were caused by conflict in his mind over his theory poor health would later force him to leave London and settle at down house near Kent England Darwin began work on a series of secret notebooks containing his thoughts about the evolutionary process he began to think that animals developed from earlier simpler organisms as early as eighteen 37 he imagined this process as a tree with branches representing new species.

unsuccessful branches ended but successful evolutionary changes continued to form new branches Charles Darwin's personal life was also expanding in 1839 he married Emma Wedgwood his cousin he told her his ideas about how species evolved over time what he called the transmutation of species Emma did not agree with her husband but the two had a strong and happy marriage they had 10 children together 7 of them survived Charles Darwin read widely and sought ideas from other fields of study he was influenced by Thomas Malthus's work an essay on the principle of population written in 1798 Malthus argued that populations are always limited by the food supply Darwin would later say that this work caused him to realize the struggle for limited resources was a fact of life.

He said small changes took place in individual animals changes that help them survive would continue but those that did not would be destroyed the result of this would be the formation of new species the British philosopher Herbert Spencer described this struggle as survival of the fittest but biologists used the term natural selection to describe the evolutionary process Charles Darwin developed his ideas slowly over more than 20 years.

He was concerned that he would lose the support of the scientific community if he revealed it he wrote to his friend botanist Joseph Hooker that speaking about evolution was like confessing a murder it was not until 1858 that Darwin was forced to release his theory to the public another naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace had independently written a paper that contained ideas similar to Darwin's concerning evolution Wallace said reached these ideas from his studies on islands in the western Pacific Ocean with help from Darwin's friends the two naturalists presented a scientific paper to the Linnaean Society of London in July of 1858 at first there was little reaction then in November 1859.

Darwin released the results of all his work on evolution the book was called on the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life it was an immediate success the Origin of Species was praised by many scientists but religious leaders denounced it for them evolution opposed the explanation of creation found in the book of Genesis in the Bible today almost all scientists accept the theory of evolution but many non scientists are unsure about whether humans evolved over millions of years in the United States.

public opinion studies have shown that less than

half the population believes in evolution natural selection does not explain everything about why species evolved Darwin did not know about Gregor Mendel's work on heredity and the discovery of genetics and DNA molecules took place long after his death yet Darwin theorized in a world much different from the one we know that is why scientists today wonder at the depth of his knowledge and the strength of his arguments Charles Darwin died on April 19th, 1882 he was buried at Westminster Abbey in London among other heroes of Britain.


charles darwin
       Charles Darwin theory of evolution 

I welcome in my series and science today we will talk about Charles Darwin's theory of evolution which is essentially the theory of how life came to be on this planet see any species cannot truly be cast as intelligent until it really starts to wonder where it comes from and these are very important philosophically questions and the answers can be very troublesome and there are myriad of answers available from scientific to religious today we will discuss what science has to say on this matter there are many possible hypotheses.

one of which is that life and the universe has existed as we see today in infinite time in the past there is another hypothesis of creationism that some external being has created life at some point in the past and the third hypothesis is rather interesting which says that at some point in the past life started originating or evolving from simple atoms which continued to evolve into much complicated in smart organisms that we see around us

 today let's discuss these hypotheses the infinite past hypothesis seems philosophically troublesome particularly to me that that the universe has always existed just like as we see it today science believes the scientific view is that this is not the case that universe has not existed in the infinite past that it has a specific birth date and that a long time ago there was no earth there was no there were no stars and we'll talk more about this when we talk about the Big Bang in the origin of the universe, for now, this rules out the first hypothesis the second hypothesis is of creationism that at some point in the past in external being which we call God created life.

now it could be true but the problem that I find with it is that it does not really answer how intelligent life comes to be because you see if if an external being created us and the external being is intelligent how does that intelligent being come to be I mean it was he was the god do they have their own guards or do they happen to be around for infinite time in the past so you see it's not clear how intelligent life comes to be in this hypothesis because if God created us who created God and have they been around for the infinite time in the past or do they have their own words the third hypothesis is of evolution and this is very interesting

 it says that it it is not necessary to have an external being or an external creator for life to happen that life can happen with working under the laws of the universe if you take simple atoms that these simple atoms can turn into molecules which can turn into single-celled organisms and then it can evolve slightly over time such that this becomes smarter and smarter and complex and complexes that they eventually become so smart that they one day start to wonder

 where do I come from and that's that is one of the hypothesis that how humans have come to be in this planet today we will discuss that which of these hypothesis science believes is true the mystery of life has been called the mystery of mysteries and today we will try to resolve the mystery we will talk about Charles Darwin and his and his work of lifetime.

which he published in his book the origins of species he went on a voyage around the world for five years and he collected a lot of evidence and we will also discuss the basic insights that led him to his discovery let's talk about the worst before Charles Darwin one of the leading views at the time was that the species were immutable that God had created distinct 

species man and then birds and then and then pigeons and then and then dogs and cats and lions etc and that the species had an order like there were plants and on top of which there were the animals and on top of the animals were the humans and up above the humans were gods in the skies similarly the famous botanist Carl Linnaeus

who was a Swedish botanist he started categorizing these various organisms he started his he led the foundation of the biological nomenclature that we see around and he first categorized the animals into species at a species was a categorized by the set of animals that could breed within themselves and within a species there were a lot of varieties or races now there were still some unanswered questions at that time in people and scientists realized that one of which was that if if God had created species in a particular order why were there so many variety of species

why we're there for example so many pigeons so many various pigeons why were there so many variety of dogs why were there so many we're idea of cares and secondly why could a particular animal be a source by just looking at a particular animal an experienced person could tell that I think this animal was originated in the Middle East why was it that different varieties of species tend to be associated with different locations let's talk about Lamarck so Lamarck proposed a very good idea 

that species were not consonant and that they changed or evolved over time and he primarily focused on two main works one of which was that by using their organs very frequently animals tend to strengthen those organs for example if you use your hand a lot it will grow muscles if if and similarly if you don't use a particular organ and for example if you don't use your eyes for a long time if you live in a dark cave then eventually 

the organs will get aureate and eventually they will they will go away similarly all the acquired the second thing he focused on was that all these characteristics that you acquire over lifetime they are passed on to your children those were the two main things now this work was however slightly incomplete and incorrect for example the first law really is just an exaggeration of saying that by by using a particular organ it strengthens but it doesn't really tell how an organism evolves he also made some wrong assumptions that he

said that organisms have a tendency to move to increase in complexity and move te ladder up in the progress but he it he didn't really answer why organism wanted to progress or wanted to become more complex it is primarily his second law or second world rule that is considered his legacy that characteristics acquired by animals are passed on via heredity to their children Charles Darwin was born in 1809 in England to a very wealthy family and his father wanted to make him become a doctor but he was more inclined to become naturalist. 

he attended Cambridge where he was introduced to the various naturalist at the time and one of which was Paley who argued that because the organs of the human body were so complex that it was probably a good hypothesis to assume that an external being had created us, Darwin, when he graduated even though 

he was supposed to go for further studies he decided to take an offer to go around the world on a research ship HMS speaker HMS Beagle left England in 1831 and it was supposed to go on this research mission for two years but it would not return for five he Darwin was an unpaid naturalist on the ship while on the ship the captain of the ship gave Darwin a very good book called principles of geology that was written by the geologist Charles Lyle Lyle argued that the surface of the earth here was not created by a flood or anything or any catastrophe 

it was created or sculpted over long periods of time and it had gradually evolved over long periods of time so this very idea that the that something changes over time gradually so much that eventually, you don't recognize what it started from this idea had a profound impact on Darwin and his own experiences during the voyage back the geologists theories he the another thing that that astonished Darwin was that the variety of creatures or organisms that he met during his voyage for example in 1835 the bigger landed on the islands of Galapagos in near Chile and the creations of Galapagos really astonished 

Darwin, for example, there were lizards who could swim and these were the only kind of lizards Darwin had ever heard of that could swim and there was a similar variety of lizards that lived on land there were oversized tortoises and which were unique to each Island I mean you could take a look at the eat or toys and you could tell that this particular tortoise comes from this island the other one comes from that Island and in particular in of particular importance are the species of bird which were finches the importance of which Darwin did not recognize at the time but he brought the specimen back with him to England and when these specimens were presented to the famous ordinary fellows John Goule

he announced that they were all finches and this really astonished Darwin because he had not thought of those specimens as connected at all he these birds were very different in shape and size and there was a huge range of variation between them so when Beagle returned to England in 1836.

Darwin began to assemble all the evidence that he had collected into a single coherent theory there were many things that he had noticed one of which was that the birds of Galapagos were all related and this argued that they once had a common ancestor similarly the fact that those tortoises came from different islands and you could tell that this total came from this island argued that they once had a common in system each family their eye from a common ancestor and that man himself was a member of the pigeon Club in London and he ran his own experiments on pigeon 


he could find that you could change a species over time as well as those characteristics were then on to their children with high chance variation under domestication and this was also the first chapter in Darwin's book on the origins of species in this chapter Darwin argued that humans have shown that we can selectively breed animals with desired features for example we could breed a horse that could run very fast and or we could breed a dog with beautiful tails so and to be able to do this all you do is that you grow randomly a bunch of animals and then you selectively choose the ones that have desired features, in the end, you breed them this was artificial selection so Darwin was pretty convinced that species could modify and change over time and that you could artificially select them to have desired 

characteristics but how did evolution work in nature how did a species change in nature because there was no artificial selection going on no one was picking them then how did species evolve over time and the answer to this came to Darwin after reading 

Thomas Malthus who was a famous economist his book called the essay on principle of population Malthus said that any species multiplied very fast they multiplied geometrically but the supply for food or other resources necessary for their survival either remain constant or increase slowly so eventually what happened is that when the species had multiplied so much the resources necessary for survival became scarce and what this meant is that all the individuals of the species would be fighting for their survival to get the limited resources and what this meant is that and Darwin.

now saw the matter clearly that this man that the species competed to eat to reproduce to avoid predators essentially there was a game going on to survive because the resources were limited and so what happened is the following if by random chance some individuals were born which made their chances of survival better they would survive and those characteristics 

would then be passed on to their children with a high chance and and that is how these characteristics would come to dominate the population oversight over several generations and this is when Darwin realized the natural selection the primary driver of evolution on the origins of species was the work of Charles Darwin that was published after almost a lifetime of Darwin's work that we knew that his theory was so mind-bending that that public would probably reject his hypothesis unless he made a very good case so he collected for almost 50 years evidence 

before he put together his book to understand how his theory and how evolution works let's assume certain facts one is that offspring of any species slightly vary for example siblings that are born to the same parents have slightly different heights they have slightly different eye colors fact number two animal characteristics are passed on with a very high chance to their children, for example, pay children off tall parents are likely to be tall and the resources necessary for survival are limited that several individuals of a species are fighting to get them under these circumstances we assume that natural selection kicks in that individual that are born by random chance

 I reiterate by random chance that makes them fit that make that make their chances slightly better they have a slightly better chance to survive or to win in this game and therefore they have a slightly better chance to reproduce and have off soon and because these characteristics are then passed on to their children the these characteristics which make them beneficial come to become to populate the majority but becomes the majority and this is how a species evolved for example take a look at a giraffe to let's say a giraffe who initially had a short neck and this is one of the theories

why giraffes have long neck is that initially giraffes used to have shorter neck but let's say they are born in an environment where fruits are high up in the tree if by random chance of giraffe is born that has a slightly taller neck then that giraffe will have a much better chance of survival while his peers will die out and that is and eventually his children will have two taller necks and this will continue to increase the long necks will continue to increase and there they have a company need to have an advantage over other people who are others struggling peers so next 

we'll continue to rise the further evidence for natural selection is the evolution of peppered moth in England and this has been studied greatly evolution generally works over millions of years but under certain circumstances such that when the environmental pressure is very strong it can occur at a much faster rate for example originally in England 

the moths were light-colored the majority of them and the this help them become this give them an advantage because think about this if they rested on a tree which was light-colored the dark-colored moth will appear out will stand out and will be eaten by the predator however the light-colored will be camouflaged successfully however during the Industrial Revolution what happened is that the light-colored plants died out and the trees became the dark by the suit by the population and this gave an advantage to the dark-colored and within a few decades the story completely changed upside-down the majority of the dark-colored moth became 98% in population

 all this is good but we have still not answered how do we have understood how a species evolve over time but what we have not yet talked about is that how does a monkey evolve into a human being how do how do species change so that they become a completely different species and the answer to that is that in that means view there was no fixity of species to species were just too different was just such that one a long time ago there were children of the same parents it just so happens is that a particulars what is the species a species is just a population of animals

 who can breed and they have an average set of characteristics and they are just variations on those average characteristics however over time these average characteristics can evolve if the environment changes if due to natural selection and evolution if however what happens is that due to some external factors these population is divided into two parts let's say a flood happens or the species migrate and then these two species 

which are distinctly located in different environments over time there will ran chout so much that they will eventually become to be as two distinct species and will no longer be able to breed with each other and that is one of the cases with the Apes and humans that we once were Apes it's just that our ancestor decided to move out of the tundra and walk on the ground that they became humans and the Apes in the jungle remained Apes so concluding there has been widespread opposition to the theory however it is part of science and it is accepted people, for example, asked questions such as if man evolved from monkeys why are monkeys still around and also they asked that why don't we see evolution around us why don't we see a dog evolving into a wolf or a monkey evolving into a man

 hopefully you now understand why these oppositions do not work of the three hypotheses that I discussed above science supports the third intelligent life can come to be from simple atoms on its own and the philosophical consequences of the theory of evolution are profound for example it rules out the nests the necessity of a creator may be around but it is not necessary to create life can come to be on its own by evolving under the laws of the universe the second thing which I found 

very interesting is that no matter who you are if you are listening to my lecture if we go back in time we will find that we once had a common ancestor and it doesn't matter even if you are a chimpanzee or a fish if we go back in time long in a v1 we will find that V once had a common mother and father all life on this planet is connected it can be said that if an alien species land on earth the stick with which they will measure how intelligent we are they will simply ask themselves well have humans have they figured out evolution here and by that measure we would have proved to be intelligent thank you ...


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