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Essay on Progress of Indian Education Sector After independence

Indian Education Sector After independence

Essay on Progress of Indian Education Sector After independence


"Education is the most powerful weapon 

which we can use to change the world." 


Friends, Education is a very important factor in the economic development of any country. India since the early days of independence has always focused on improving the literacy rate of our country. From a literary rate of 18% in 1951.

India has moved phenomenally up to 77% as of 2020. Compared to the tragic situation of 1947, when the country had merely 400 schools, 19 universities, with a little over 5,000 students, we have come a long way. Currently, India boasts 1.5 million-plus schools, 751 universities, and 35 thousand plus colleges. 

2. Progress of Indian Education Sector 

Today, India has managed to bring its education system at par with global standards. India made significant progress in the sector of Education in the 70 years since independence. 

In the last 70 years, our Indian Education sector has grown many folds, with the help of the government, private and NGO partnerships. In 1950, by the government, the central advisory board of Physical Education and Recreation was set up to promote Physical education in schools and also train teachers. 

A mid-day meal scheme was also introduced by the government to increase the number of students attending school and to provide nutrition to the students. In 1968, the National Education policy was also formulated by the government of India to promote and regulate education in India, and then in 1986.

This national Education policy was revised by prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and for the third time, it Promulgated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi Ji in 2020. With the introduction of the National Education policy, there was a lot of development in the field of education in India. 

Also, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), for children from 6 to 14 years old was launched in 2000 to impart Compulsory elementary education to all... Friends, in 1951 India was having less than 2.4 lakh Primary schools whereas, in 2018, India has more than 15 lakh schools. When it comes to the universities, From 27 universities in 1951, Currently India has 829 Universities and the number is growing fast... 

3. Progress in Women Education Sector


Nowadays, women are participating in many important roles in all departments. Today we can say that there are no departments without women. But in our past generations, women were treated like slaves. In 1951, the percentage of literate women in the country was just 9% but today India's Countrywide female literacy rate is 70.3%. 

Friends, this is because after independence, the educational rights of women were promoted and they were made aware of the value of Education. The government also provided several benefits to women such as scholarships, loan facilities, hostel facilities, etc, who wished to go out to pursue higher education. 

Today by getting such benefits a large number of women are also able to pursue higher education. Also, separate schools and colleges have been established for women. 

Separate Universities have been also established which are among the Prestigious universities today and admit the girls obtaining Merit ranks. The government also has taken numerous strategies to improve Girls' education in India like Beti Bachao, Beti Padho, free Education schemes, etc. 

So after independence, we can see major changes in girls Education and hope that in the coming years, girls Education in India will achieve new heights. 

4. Indian Education sector in 21st century 

Friends, today we are running into the 21st century where Technology knows no bounds. The Education sector in India has seen rapid changes in the last decade. There has been a dramatic shift in the Education ecosystem as a whole and now online Education and blended classes have become a norm in all levels of education. 

Today Education sector involves various advanced techniques like online courses, online exams, digital textbooks, animation, etc. so that students can get a more effective Education. One of the significant change took place in the last decade is the free availability of content. 

Today Initiatives like E- Pathsala, Online NCERT books, educational tv channels have been started to provide content to all for free. So today digital learning is changing the facing of the Indian Education sector. 

5. Conclusion: 

In conclusion, I want to say that the progress of the Indian Education sector has evolved considerably since we Achieved our independence. The intervention of technology has made our Education sector easier and much more insightful than it ever was. 

Essay on Progress of Indian Education Sector After independence

Teaching 1.3 billion people in India is not an easy job by any means but that problem becomes more severe when half of the population is below 25 which puts a lot of pressure on the current education system 

by definition, education means teaching, learning, and training in school to improve knowledge and develop skills but if you are a student in India you would be more familiar with this scenario 

Teacher lectures monotonous Lane the class while students fall asleep and during exams just spew out among staff and manage to get good grades 

This type of education has no application in the real world and does not meet the requirement of the job market the Indian education system is basically designed to produce followers just like a Xerox machine 

This is because the Indian education system is information based rather than knowledge-based and needs drastic reforms in terms of application the Indian education system can be divided into three parts 

First is an elementary education 

This includes students from first till 8th standard typically 6 to 14 years of age India has an astonishing 97% enrolment rate which means 97% of the students are nominally enrolled in any school across India 

but this does not guarantee that these many students are actually attending school number of primary schools increased from two point four lakh in 1947 to eleven point nine two lakh in 2011 

some good incentives by the government like the right to education and midday meals really helped in increasing enrollment rates.

The second relocation system includes

Students from ninth to twelfth standard typically 14 to 19 years of age the number of secondary students increased from 15 lakh in 1947 to 482 lat according to the 2011 census 

The number of secondary schools increased from 7400 in 1947 to 2.3 lakh in 2011 lastly the higher education system which includes colleges and universities currently more than 3.5 growers students are seeking higher education and around 80 lakh graduate in India every year 

The number of universities increased from 28 in 1947 to 650 in 2011 and colleges increased from 578 in 1947 to around 35,000 at present

Dropout rate about 77 % of students enrolled in India go on to secondary education which is 10th standard while 55 % complete their senior second raid occasion that is termed standard only 26% managed to complete their higher education 

Sadly only 1 out of 4 students completes higher education which not only adversely affects the student's personal development but also the country's economy and development if compared with other countries 92.5% of students graduating China and 75% in the u.s. a literacy rate it is the percentage of people in the country that have the ability to read and write in any language 

India's overall literacy rate has grown from 20 % in 1947 to 74 % according to the 2011 census today it stands at 80 % compared to the world literacy rate of 86 % literacy rates also vary across states Kerala tops the chart at 93 % and Mizoram at 92 % while in poorer performing states Bihar is consistent at 63 % and Rajasthan at 67 % student-teacher ratio 

Another important factor in education is a student-teacher ratio which means the number of students per teacher India has 30 to 1 whereas China has 18 in France and Sweden it's around 10 in Bihar student-teacher ratio in primary schools is burst at 57 with the UP has 45 and West Bengal at 39 with the exception of Andhra Pradesh at 25 to 1.

quality of education despite the high overall enrollment rate for primary education there was a survey in which among rural children of age 10 half could not read at a basic level over 60% were unable to do division and half dropped out by the age of 14 

This raises serious questions on the ecology of education in India government funding education to GDP funding in India is only treated 4% ranking 149 across all countries 

Cuba tops the chart with 12.9% and Norway spends around 8% which is around the world's average lack of infrastructure with the above level of spending what can you expect from infrastructure 56 % of government schools in India do not have electricity almost 40 % of schools do not have a boundary wall 

In 2019 the school education department proposed to allocate eighty-two thousand five hundred and seventy crores but only fifty-nine thousand eight hundred and forty-five crores was allocated seventy percent of what was promised a total of two thousand six hundred and thirteen projects were sanctioned in 2019 twenty but only three had been completed in the first nine months of the financial year only three laboratories had been built so far 

One each for physics chemistry and biology despite sanctioned funds for 1343 labs 135 libraries and 74 art craft culture rooms had been sanctioned but none had been built with just three months left in the financial year

Some schools lack basic facilities like water and toilets well we all know where the sanctioned money's going no focus on sports personal development less than 57% of schools don't even have playgrounds 

The Indian education system does not encourage and incentivize students to take up sports and extracurricular activities India's total medal tally at the Olympics stands at 28 in 24 games so far compared to countries like China and the USA where one more Olympic medal at the 2016 Olympics alone.


If India wishes to become a global par one day then it needs to efficiently use its young population and empower them but it can only be done by educating the young so that they can contribute to the economy of this growing nation 

India needs to prove the quality of education so that it meets the requirement and needs of both students and the market for that India needs to make some drastic reforms adaption of technology in teaching like eLearning to reach the vast population in remote places 

More government spending at least six percent of GDP in education is required which will improve the infrastructure and quality of the current education system

An inclusive education system that incorporates all sectors of society good quality of teachers into the system with proper training and tests as teachers are the heart of any education sector.

Also read: Essay on changes in education system my views

Also read: Essay on importance of education

Also read: why female education is important essay

Also read: Impact of coronavirus on education in India Essay

Also read: Education should be free for everyone



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